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1.
他者 (2024-07-05 17:12):
#paper doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2022.105126 Adaptive cognitive maps for curved surfaces in the 3D world 三维空间中,垂直信息大量存在,但之前大部分研究只聚焦于平面上的空间表征,构建2D认知地图。在该研究中, 研究者研究了人类是通过构建降维的扁平 2D 地图还是完整的 3D 地图来表示曲面。被试通过在表面的凹面上行驶(实验 1)、驾驶并垂直观察(实验 2)或飞行(实验 3)来了解虚拟环境中位于平面和曲面上的物体的位置。随后,他们被要求检索物体之间的路径距离或 3D 欧几里得距离。结果表明,被试明显低估曲线的路径距离,而接触3D结构更多的运动模式(飞行)改善了被试的估计表现。这些结果表明,被试在三维空间的认知地图不是2D的,也不是3D的,而是2D的流行表示,该认知地图可以根据经验和任务需求而调整。
3D世界中曲面的自适应认知地图
Abstract:
Terrains in a 3D world can be undulating. Yet, most prior research has exclusively investigated spatial representations on a flat surface, leaving a 2D cognitive map as the dominant model … >>>
Terrains in a 3D world can be undulating. Yet, most prior research has exclusively investigated spatial representations on a flat surface, leaving a 2D cognitive map as the dominant model in the field. Here, we investigated whether humans represent a curved surface by building a dimension-reduced flattened 2D map or a full 3D map. Participants learned the location of objects positioned on a flat and curved surface in a virtual environment by driving on the concave side of the surface (Experiment 1), driving and looking vertically (Experiment 2), or flying (Experiment 3). Subsequently, they were asked to retrieve either the path distance or the 3D Euclidean distance between the objects. Path distance estimation was good overall, but we found a significant underestimation bias for the path distance on the curve, suggesting an influence of potential 3D shortcuts, even though participants were only driving on the surface. Euclidean distance estimation was better when participants were exposed more to the global 3D structure of the environment by looking and flying. These results suggest that the representation of the 2D manifold, embedded in a 3D world, is neither purely 2D nor 3D. Rather, it is flexible and dependent on the behavioral experience and demand. <<<
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3D 世界中的地形可能是起伏的。然而,大多数先前的研究都专门研究了平面上的空间表示,而 2D 认知地图是该领域的主要模型。在这里,我们研究了人类是否通过构建降维扁平化 2D 地图或完整的 3D 地图来表示曲面。参与者通过在表面的凹面驾驶(实验 1)、驾驶和垂直观察(实验 2)或飞行(实验 3)来学习在虚拟环境中放置在平面和曲面上的物体的位置。随后,他们被要求检索物体之间的路径距离或3D欧几里得距离。路径距离估计总体上是好的,但我们发现曲线上的路径距离存在明显的低估偏差,这表明即使参与者只是在表面上行驶,也可能存在潜在的3D捷径的影响。当参与者通过观察和飞行更多地暴露于环境的全球三维结构时,欧几里得距离估计更好。这些结果表明,嵌入在 3D 世界中的 2D 流形的表示既不是纯粹的 2D 也不是 3D。相反,它是灵活的,并依赖于行为经验和需求。
2.
他者 (2024-06-06 21:01):
#paper Differential Recruitment of the Hippocampus, Medial Prefrontal Cortex, and the Human Motion Complex during Path Integration in Humans. J Neurosci. 2007. 路径整合能力指监测自我运动,追踪方向和位置的变化的能力,是空间导航和认知地图发展的关键。之前的研究表明动物的路径整合主要由头朝向细胞(head-direction)、网格细胞(grid cell)和位置细胞(place cell)支持,然而,在本文发表之前,对于人类路径整合细胞的脑网络基础还不清楚。因此,研究者检验人类被试在三角范式中的fMRI信号,以探究人类路径整合的脑网络是否与啮齿动物、非人类哺乳动物相似。研究主要结果如下:1-更强的右侧海马信号预测了更准确的路径整合表现;2-被试间反应一致性波动与双侧海马和内侧前额叶激活负相关;3-双侧人体运动复合体 (hMT+)回路与个体路径整合能力共变。综上,该研究首次证明视觉路径整合与海马、内侧前额叶、人体运动复合体有关。
Abstract:
<jats:p>Path integration, the ability to sense self-motion for keeping track of changes in orientation and position, constitutes a fundamental mechanism of spatial navigation and a keystone for the development of … >>>
<jats:p>Path integration, the ability to sense self-motion for keeping track of changes in orientation and position, constitutes a fundamental mechanism of spatial navigation and a keystone for the development of cognitive maps. Whereas animal path integration is predominantly supported by the head-direction, grid, and place cell systems, the neural foundations are not well understood in humans. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and a virtual rendition of a triangle completion paradigm to test whether human path integration recruits a cortical system similar to that of rodents and nonhuman primates. Participants traveled along two legs of a triangle before pointing toward the starting location. In accordance with animal models, stronger right hippocampal activation predicted more accurate updating of the starting location on a trial-by-trial basis. Moreover, between-subjects fluctuations in response consistency were negatively correlated with bilateral hippocampal and medial prefrontal activation, and bilateral recruitment of the human motion complex (hMT+) covaried with individual path integration capability. Given that these effects were absent in a perceptual control task, the present study provides the first evidence that visual path integration is related to the dynamic interplay of self-motion processing in hMT+, higher-level spatial processes in the hippocampus, and spatial working memory in medial prefrontal cortex.</jats:p> <<<
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3.
他者 (2024-05-11 23:37):
#paper Visual boundary cues suffice to anchor place and grid cells in virtual reality. Current Biology. 2024 May 2; doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2024.04.026. 空间导航过程中,边界作为一类重要的地标线索,为位置估计提供了重要的信息。在虚拟环境中,去除边界将对位置细胞和网格细胞的空间特异性和试次内稳定性产生强烈破坏。然而,检测边界的感官信息的精确性尚未可知。在该研究中,研究者令小鼠在虚拟环境中完成目标位置寻找任务,同时记录小鼠位置细胞和网格细胞的放电情况。研究表明: 1-仅具有一定高度的边界(而不是在平面上以纹理定义的边界)可以锚定虚拟现实环境中位置细胞和网格细胞的空间放电。 2-不稳定的网格细胞保持六倍调制,然而firing fields将在短时间内(>5s)发生偏移,且该偏移不受到光流信息的调制。 3-部分位置细胞显示出基于地标线索(标志目标位置的线索)的异己中心定向调谐,然而调谐强度与firing fields的稳定性相关。
Abstract:
The hippocampal formation contains neurons responsive to an animal's current location and orientation, which together provide the organism with a neural map of space. Spatially tuned neurons rely on external … >>>
The hippocampal formation contains neurons responsive to an animal's current location and orientation, which together provide the organism with a neural map of space. Spatially tuned neurons rely on external landmark cues and internally generated movement information to estimate position. An important class of landmark cue are the boundaries delimiting an environment, which can define place cell field position and stabilize grid cell firing. However, the precise nature of the sensory information used to detect boundaries remains unknown. We used 2-dimensional virtual reality (VR) to show that visual cues from elevated walls surrounding the environment are both sufficient and necessary to stabilize place and grid cell responses in VR, when only visual and self-motion cues are available. By contrast, flat boundaries formed by the edges of a textured floor did not stabilize place and grid cells, indicating only specific forms of visual boundary stabilize hippocampal spatial firing. Unstable grid cells retain internally coherent, hexagonally arranged firing fields, but these fields "drift" with respect to the virtual environment over periods >5 s. Optic flow from a virtual floor does not slow drift dynamics, emphasizing the importance of boundary-related visual information. Surprisingly, place fields are more stable close to boundaries even with floor and wall cues removed, suggesting invisible boundaries are inferred using the motion of a discrete, separate cue (a beacon signaling reward location). Subsets of place cells show allocentric directional tuning toward the beacon, with strength of tuning correlating with place field stability when boundaries are removed. <<<
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4.
他者 (2024-04-05 01:19):
#paper, Prior probability cues bias sensory encoding with increasing task exposure, doi:https://elifesciences.org/articles/91135.先验影响被试的反应时间和反应结果,之前的计算模型通常将先验的影响归因于选择方案时的调整(即先验的影响发生在决策阶段)。然而,最近的研究表明,先验也可能直接影响感官证据(似然)。在本研究中,研究者用脑电图记录了神经活动,同时被试在多个测试过程中使用有效先验、无效先验或中性先验执行对比辨别任务。研究者通过对比依赖的稳态视觉诱发电位(SSVEP)测量了感觉证据编码,而标准调整的读数则由运动皮层上的效应器选择性 mu-β 带活动提供。研究着发现先验对运动和SSVEP 均产生了显着的调节。研究表明,除了对决策过程进行战略调整之外,先验概率信息还会引起编码的偏差。
Abstract:
<jats:p>When observers have prior knowledge about the likely outcome of their perceptual decisions, they exhibit robust behavioural biases in reaction time and choice accuracy. Computational modelling typically attributes these effects … >>>
<jats:p>When observers have prior knowledge about the likely outcome of their perceptual decisions, they exhibit robust behavioural biases in reaction time and choice accuracy. Computational modelling typically attributes these effects to strategic adjustments in the criterion amount of evidence required to commit to a choice alternative - usually implemented by a starting point shift - but recent work suggests that expectations may also fundamentally bias the encoding of the sensory evidence itself. Here, we recorded neural activity with EEG while participants performed a contrast discrimination task with valid, invalid, or neutral probabilistic cues across multiple testing sessions. We measured sensory evidence encoding via contrast-dependent steady-state visual-evoked potentials (SSVEP), while a read-out of criterion adjustments was provided by effector-selective mu-beta band activity over motor cortex. In keeping with prior modelling and neural recording studies, cues evoked substantial biases in motor preparation consistent with criterion adjustments, but we additionally found that the cues produced a significant modulation of the SSVEP during evidence presentation. While motor preparation adjustments were observed in the earliest trials, the sensory-level effects only emerged with extended task exposure. Our results suggest that, in addition to strategic adjustments to the decision process, probabilistic information can also induce subtle biases in the encoding of the evidence itself.</jats:p> <<<
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5.
他者 (2024-03-04 22:05):
#paper, DOI: https://elifesciences.org/articles/17086, elife, A map of abstract relational knowledge in the human hippocampal–entorhinal cortex, 海马-内嗅系统编码指导空间导航的空间地图,这是一种连续的地图(map)。对连续地图信息的处理依赖于神经系统,但处理连续地图信息的原则是否能够拓展到隐式编码的离散地图尚未可知。在这篇文章中,研究者证明海马-内嗅系统可以使用联想强度的度量表示抽象对象之间的关系(距离),即使该关系式非空间的(抽象的)、离散不连续且隐式编码的。研究者通过海马-内嗅fmri适应信号重建了类似于空间地图的知识结构,且最佳预测度量是未来状态的加权和,这和位置细胞、网格细胞放电模式的后继表示相类似。
eLife, 2017-04-27. DOI: 10.7554/eLife.17086 PMID: 28448253
Abstract:
The hippocampal-entorhinal system encodes a map of space that guides spatial navigation. Goal-directed behaviour outside of spatial navigation similarly requires a representation of abstract forms of relational knowledge. This information … >>>
The hippocampal-entorhinal system encodes a map of space that guides spatial navigation. Goal-directed behaviour outside of spatial navigation similarly requires a representation of abstract forms of relational knowledge. This information relies on the same neural system, but it is not known whether the organisational principles governing continuous maps may extend to the implicit encoding of discrete, non-spatial graphs. Here, we show that the human hippocampal-entorhinal system can represent relationships between objects using a metric that depends on associative strength. We reconstruct a map-like knowledge structure directly from a hippocampal-entorhinal functional magnetic resonance imaging adaptation signal in a situation where relationships are non-spatial rather than spatial, discrete rather than continuous, and unavailable to conscious awareness. Notably, the measure that best predicted a behavioural signature of implicit knowledge and blood oxygen level-dependent adaptation was a weighted sum of future states, akin to the successor representation that has been proposed to account for place and grid-cell firing patterns. <<<
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6.
他者 (2024-02-15 16:06):
#paper doi:10.7554/eLife.91825.3 A spatial-attentional mechanism underlies action-related distortions of time judgment,eLife 时间绑定(Temporal binding)指一种动作和稍微延迟的感官事件之间的时间吸引力的错觉,由动作绑定(action binding,即被报告为较晚发生的动作)和结果绑定(outcome binding,即被报告为较早发生的感觉事件)组成。然而,在使用Libet时钟方法测量时间判断时,视觉空间注意力的影响被严重忽视。结果绑定通常是通过比较动作声音(AS)条件和仅声音(SO)条件来获得的,被试报告声音播放时时钟指针指向的位置,AS 条件下报告的时间比 SO 条件下的报告时间早。动作绑定通过比较AS条件和AO条件,AS 条件下报告的按键时间晚于 AO 条件下报告的按键时间。在本研究的四个实验中,研究者使用时钟方法证明了由动作和感觉刺激引起的时间绑定中注意力调节的不同模式。此外,单独使用注意力测量的计算模型可以重现时间绑定效应,为时间绑定的注意力假设提供强有力的支持证据。
Abstract:
<jats:p>Temporal binding has been understood as an illusion in timing judgment. When an action triggers an outcome (e.g. a sound) after a brief delay, the action is reported to occur … >>>
<jats:p>Temporal binding has been understood as an illusion in timing judgment. When an action triggers an outcome (e.g. a sound) after a brief delay, the action is reported to occur later than if the outcome does not occur, and the outcome is reported to occur earlier than a similar outcome not caused by an action. We show here that an attention mechanism underlies the seeming illusion of timing judgment. In one method, participants watch a rotating clock hand and report event times by noting the clock hand position when the event occurs. We find that visual spatial attention is critically involved in shaping event time reports made in this way. This occurs because action and outcome events result in shifts of attention around the clock rim, thereby biasing the perceived location of the clock hand. Using a probe detection task to measure attention, we show a difference in the distribution of visual spatial attention between a single-event condition (sound only or action only) and a two-event agency condition (action plus sound). Participants accordingly report the timing of the same event (the sound or the action) differently in the two conditions: spatial attentional shifts masquerading as temporal binding. Furthermore, computational modeling based on the attention measure can reproduce the temporal binding effect. Studies that use time judgment as an implicit marker of voluntary agency should first discount the artefactual changes in event timing reports that actually reflect differences in spatial attention. The study also has important implications for related results in mental chronometry obtained with the clock-like method since Wundt, as attention may well be a critical confounding factor in the interpretation of these studies.</jats:p> <<<
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7.
他者 (2024-01-03 23:11):
#paper doi: 10.1037/xge0001279 Did it Move? Humans use Spatio-temporal Landmark Permanency Efficiently for Navigation, J Exp Psychol Gen 地标在导航过程提供重要信息,且永久性(不随时间变化)的地标似乎更加可信。这篇研究将地标的时空永久性视为概率属性,研究了人类对地标永久性概率的学习。研究假设人类将能够了解地标永久性的概率性质,并为更永久的地标分配更高的权重。研究使用homing task,要求被试返回三个地标指示的位置。在学习阶段,研究者在被试返航前重定位其中一个地标以操纵其时间永久性(被试不被告知该移动),在测试阶段,研究者分析被试分配给非永久地标的权重。研究一共使用四个实验,前两个实验改变了地标的永久性,发现被试分配给非永久性地标更低的权重。后两个实验分析短期学习和长期经验对地标永久性的影响,结果发现长期的先验信念很快就会被当前的永久性统计数据更新。这些结果表明人类快速学习和更新地标永久性的规律,并以有效的方式使用它,逐渐为更永久的地标分配更多的权重,使其对导航更加重要。
8.
他者 (2023-12-13 23:02):
#paper,https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.55389,A Bayesian and efficient observer model explains concurrent attractive and repulsive history biases in visual perception,人类的视觉感知受到历史经验的影响,同时产生排斥性偏差和吸引性偏差,且二者具有不同的时间尺度:吸引性偏差的衰减速度快,只由上一个试次刺激影响产生,排斥性偏差衰减速度慢,可以持续受到过去数分钟的刺激的影响,暗示吸引性和排斥性偏差的机制是分离的。但是,目前仍不清楚吸引性的偏差和排斥性的偏差在知觉决策过程中是否相互作用以及如何相互作用。这篇研究结合了快速编码框架和贝叶斯解码模型,同时捕获了吸引性偏差和排斥性偏差的关键特征。
eLife, 2020-06-01. DOI: 10.7554/eLife.55389 PMID: 32479264
Abstract:
Human perceptual decisions can be repelled away from (repulsive adaptation) or attracted towards recent visual experience (attractive serial dependence). It is currently unclear whether and how these repulsive and attractive … >>>
Human perceptual decisions can be repelled away from (repulsive adaptation) or attracted towards recent visual experience (attractive serial dependence). It is currently unclear whether and how these repulsive and attractive biases interact during visual processing and what computational principles underlie these history dependencies. Here we disentangle repulsive and attractive biases by exploring their respective timescales. We find that perceptual decisions are concurrently attracted towards the short-term perceptual history and repelled from stimuli experienced up to minutes into the past. The temporal pattern of short-term attraction and long-term repulsion cannot be captured by an ideal Bayesian observer model alone. Instead, it is well captured by an ideal observer model with efficient encoding and Bayesian decoding of visual information in a slowly changing environment. Concurrent attractive and repulsive history biases in perceptual decisions may thus be the consequence of the need for visual processing to simultaneously satisfy constraints of efficiency and stability. <<<
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9.
他者 (2023-11-26 20:27):
#paper doi:10.1093/braincomms/fcac303. Implicit sensorimotor adaptation is preserved in Parkinson’s disease. 帕金森病是一种主要影响基底神经节回路的神经退行性疾病,被认为会损害获得和适应熟练运动的能力。帕金森病是否影响内隐运动适应仍然是一个有争议的研究领域:虽然多项研究显示帕金森人群的表现受损,但也有一些研究显示表现完好。这些差异可能是之前的研究混淆了隐性适应(implicit adaptation)和重新瞄准(strategic re-aiming)。这篇研究重点关注内隐运动适应中的视觉运动适应。视觉运动适应通过自动调整感觉运动来响应预期和实际感觉反馈之间的误差,从而使运动系统保持精确校准。本研究在视觉运动适应任务中匹配了对照,从而分离隐性适应和重新瞄准。结果发现帕金森病被试对视觉扰动的适应能力和对照被试相似,说明帕金森病不损害视觉运动适应。该发现为基底神经节在感觉运动学习中的作用提供了新的视角。
Abstract:
Our ability to enact successful goal-directed actions involves multiple learning processes. Among these processes, implicit motor adaptation ensures that the sensorimotor system remains finely tuned in response to changes in … >>>
Our ability to enact successful goal-directed actions involves multiple learning processes. Among these processes, implicit motor adaptation ensures that the sensorimotor system remains finely tuned in response to changes in the body and environment. Whether Parkinson's disease impacts implicit motor adaptation remains a contentious area of research: whereas multiple reports show impaired performance in this population, many others show intact performance. While there is a range of methodological differences across studies, one critical issue is that performance in many of the studies may reflect a combination of implicit adaptation and strategic re-aiming. Here, we revisited this controversy using a visuomotor task designed to isolate implicit adaptation. In two experiments, we found that adaptation in response to a wide range of visual perturbations was similar in Parkinson's disease and matched control participants. Moreover, in a meta-analysis of previously published and unpublished work, we found that the mean effect size contrasting Parkinson's disease and controls across 16 experiments involving over 200 participants was not significant. Together, these analyses indicate that implicit adaptation is preserved in Parkinson's disease, offering a fresh perspective on the role of the basal ganglia in sensorimotor learning. <<<
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10.
他者 (2023-10-18 10:48):
#paper doi:https://doi.org/10.1101/2023.08.18.553829,Temporal regularities shape perceptual decisions and striatal dopamine signals, bioRxiv, 2023。时间规律塑造感知决策和纹状体多巴胺信号,这里的时间规律指的是实验条件之间的转移概率,而不是我们一般理解的时间分布。文章对小鼠的视觉感知决策行为数据进行分析,总结行为数据关键特征并构建多试次部分可见马尔科夫强化学习模型(POMDP)捕捉并解释数据的关键特征。研究者还比对了公开数据集中99只小鼠在相似实验下的行为表现,说明小鼠更依赖2-back而非1-back决策和决策结果的权重不是由于本实验的实验设计导致,可能是知觉实验中的一种默认策略。最后,研究者发现多巴胺的分泌模式能够和强化学习中的关键预测印证。
Abstract:
<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title><jats:p>Perceptual decisions should depend on sensory evidence. However, such decisions are also influenced by past choices and outcomes. These choice history biases may reflect advantageous strategies to exploit temporal regularities … >>>
<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title><jats:p>Perceptual decisions should depend on sensory evidence. However, such decisions are also influenced by past choices and outcomes. These choice history biases may reflect advantageous strategies to exploit temporal regularities of natural environments. However, it is unclear whether and how observers can adapt their choice history biases to different temporal regularities, to exploit the multitude of temporal correlations that exist in nature. Here, we show that mice adapt their perceptual choice history biases to different temporal regularities. This adaptation is well captured by a normative reinforcement learning algorithm with multi-trial belief states, comprising both current trial sensory and previous trial memory states. We demonstrate that striatal dopamine tracks predictions of the model and behavior, pointing towards the involvement of dopamine in forming adaptive history biases. Our results reveal the adaptive nature of perceptual choice history biases, and shed light on their underlying computational principles and neural implementation.</jats:p> <<<
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11.
他者 (2023-09-23 08:50):
#paper https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-022-18245-1: A comparison of reinforcement learning models of human spatial navigation , Scientific Reports, 2022,强化学习Reinforcement Learning, RL是机器学习的一个子领域,通过最大化长期的奖励的方式更新状态和行为进行学习。强化学习被广泛应用于决策、价值学习等领域,但用于描述人类空间导航的研究比较少,尤其是量化描述导航策略以及使用策略的一致性的研究就更少。本文比较了三类(共五个)强化学习模型对人类空间导航学习策略的量化描述,结果表明Model-Based RL和Model-Free RL线性加权所得的混合模型表现最好。
Abstract:
Reinforcement learning (RL) models have been influential in characterizing human learning and decision making, but few studies apply them to characterizing human spatial navigation and even fewer systematically compare RL … >>>
Reinforcement learning (RL) models have been influential in characterizing human learning and decision making, but few studies apply them to characterizing human spatial navigation and even fewer systematically compare RL models under different navigation requirements. Because RL can characterize one's learning strategies quantitatively and in a continuous manner, and one's consistency of using such strategies, it can provide a novel and important perspective for understanding the marked individual differences in human navigation and disentangle navigation strategies from navigation performance. One-hundred and fourteen participants completed wayfinding tasks in a virtual environment where different phases manipulated navigation requirements. We compared performance of five RL models (3 model-free, 1 model-based and 1 "hybrid") at fitting navigation behaviors in different phases. Supporting implications from prior literature, the hybrid model provided the best fit regardless of navigation requirements, suggesting the majority of participants rely on a blend of model-free (route-following) and model-based (cognitive mapping) learning in such navigation scenarios. Furthermore, consistent with a key prediction, there was a correlation in the hybrid model between the weight on model-based learning (i.e., navigation strategy) and the navigator's exploration vs. exploitation tendency (i.e., consistency of using such navigation strategy), which was modulated by navigation task requirements. Together, we not only show how computational findings from RL align with the spatial navigation literature, but also reveal how the relationship between navigation strategy and a person's consistency using such strategies changes as navigation requirements change. <<<
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他者 (2023-08-20 15:47):
#paper doi:10.1038/s41597-023-02449-9 Nature Scientific Data,2023,Release of cognitive and multimodal MRI data including real-world tasks and hippocampal subfield segmentations 这篇研究介绍了一个包含217名健康成年人(平均年龄 29 岁,范围 20-41;109 名女性,108 名男性)的数据集,数据集包含3T的MRI数据(包括多参数图检查组织微结构、扩散加权MRI、T2加权高分辨部分容积结构MRI扫描、全脑静息态功能MRI扫描和部分容积高分辨静息态功能MRI扫描)和大量认知评估问卷和行为实验。该数据集对认知和临床心理学的研究者,尤其是关注海马脑区的研究者有用,其中的认知测试和问卷也具有一定的参考意义。所有数据均可在 Dryad 上免费获取。
Abstract:
We share data from N = 217 healthy adults (mean age 29 years, range 20-41; 109 females, 108 males) who underwent extensive cognitive assessment and neuroimaging to examine the neural … >>>
We share data from N = 217 healthy adults (mean age 29 years, range 20-41; 109 females, 108 males) who underwent extensive cognitive assessment and neuroimaging to examine the neural basis of individual differences, with a particular focus on a brain structure called the hippocampus. Cognitive data were collected using a wide array of questionnaires, naturalistic tests that examined imagination, autobiographical memory recall and spatial navigation, traditional laboratory-based tests such as recalling word pairs, and comprehensive characterisation of the strategies used to perform the cognitive tests. 3 Tesla MRI data were also acquired and include multi-parameter mapping to examine tissue microstructure, diffusion-weighted MRI, T2-weighted high-resolution partial volume structural MRI scans (with the masks of hippocampal subfields manually segmented from these scans), whole brain resting state functional MRI scans and partial volume high resolution resting state functional MRI scans. This rich dataset will be of value to cognitive and clinical neuroscientists researching individual differences, real-world cognition, brain-behaviour associations, hippocampal subfields and more. All data are freely available on Dryad. <<<
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他者 (2023-07-29 14:54):
#paper Language network lateralization is reflected throughout the macroscale functional organization of cortex doi:10.1038/s41467-023-39131-y 半球偏侧化是人类大脑组织的一个基本特征。虽然大多数人表现出左半球语言优势,但相当一部分人口表现出反向偏侧化。利用来自HCP的双胞胎和家庭数据,本研究为语言偏侧化在大脑皮层宏观功能组织中的反映提供证据。分析表明,语言的侧化和梯度不对称在一定程度上是由遗传因素驱动的。这些发现为更深入地理解大脑半球偏侧化的种群水平变异和皮层组织的整体属性之间的起源和关系铺平了道路。
Abstract:
Hemispheric specialization is a fundamental feature of human brain organization. However, it is not yet clear to what extent the lateralization of specific cognitive processes may be evident throughout the … >>>
Hemispheric specialization is a fundamental feature of human brain organization. However, it is not yet clear to what extent the lateralization of specific cognitive processes may be evident throughout the broad functional architecture of cortex. While the majority of people exhibit left-hemispheric language dominance, a substantial minority of the population shows reverse lateralization. Using twin and family data from the Human Connectome Project, we provide evidence that atypical language dominance is associated with global shifts in cortical organization. Individuals with atypical language organization exhibit corresponding hemispheric differences in the macroscale functional gradients that situate discrete large-scale networks along a continuous spectrum, extending from unimodal through association territories. Analyses reveal that both language lateralization and gradient asymmetries are, in part, driven by genetic factors. These findings pave the way for a deeper understanding of the origins and relationships linking population-level variability in hemispheric specialization and global properties of cortical organization. <<<
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他者 (2023-06-25 23:08):
#paper doi https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-023-35967-6,Nature Communications,2023, Goal-oriented representations in the human hippocampus during planning and navigation.在之前的研究中,海马被认为与长时记忆、位置表征相关,然而,最近认知和系统神经科学的研究表明,海马可能通过形成认知地图支持计划、想象和导航。在本研究中,研究者探究人类在目标导向导航任务期间的海马活动模式,以研究如何将上下文和目标纳入导航计划的构建和执行中。在计划阶段,相同背景和目标的路线之间的海马模式相似性增强。在导航阶段,海马前瞻性激活。
Abstract:
Recent work in cognitive and systems neuroscience has suggested that the hippocampus might support planning, imagination, and navigation by forming cognitive maps that capture the abstract structure of physical spaces, … >>>
Recent work in cognitive and systems neuroscience has suggested that the hippocampus might support planning, imagination, and navigation by forming cognitive maps that capture the abstract structure of physical spaces, tasks, and situations. Navigation involves disambiguating similar contexts, and the planning and execution of a sequence of decisions to reach a goal. Here, we examine hippocampal activity patterns in humans during a goal-directed navigation task to investigate how contextual and goal information are incorporated in the construction and execution of navigational plans. During planning, hippocampal pattern similarity is enhanced across routes that share a context and a goal. During navigation, we observe prospective activation in the hippocampus that reflects the retrieval of pattern information related to a key-decision point. These results suggest that, rather than simply representing overlapping associations or state transitions, hippocampal activity patterns are shaped by context and goals. <<<
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他者 (2023-05-29 09:31):
#paper doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.3002056 PLOS Biology, 2023, Feature-specific reactivations of pastinformation shift current neural encoding thereby mediating serial bias behaviors。serial bias是知觉领域的一个重要现象,该现象表明当前实验试次的感知决策受到前几个试次的影响并产生系统偏差。但是,当前感知决策是受到之前试次的什么信息影响,是之前的刺激、之前的类别决策还是之前的运动反应?这一直处于长期争论中。本研究的行为分析和脑电信号分析揭示了序列依赖效应的动态神经机制。首先,当前试次的脑电活动中能解码当前试次的信息(预料之中)。但最为有趣的是,当前的事件发生会自动激发过去试次的相应特征信息:音调信息激发过去试次的音调,类别信息激发过去试次的类别,运动响应激活过去试次的运动反应(图2)。值得注意的是,过去试次包含的信息因为已经发生,理论上是可以一直处于激活状态的,然而研究结果表明,它们会潜入记忆的“静默态”,直到被当前试次的相应事件所重新激活。
Abstract:
The regularities of the world render an intricate interplay between past and present. Even across independent trials, current-trial perception can be automatically shifted by preceding trials, namely the "serial bias." … >>>
The regularities of the world render an intricate interplay between past and present. Even across independent trials, current-trial perception can be automatically shifted by preceding trials, namely the "serial bias." Meanwhile, the neural implementation of the spontaneous shift of present by past that operates on multiple features remains unknown. In two auditory categorization experiments with human electrophysiological recordings, we demonstrate that serial bias arises from the co-occurrence of past-trial neural reactivation and the neural encoding of current-trial features. The meeting of past and present shifts the neural representation of current-trial features and modulates serial bias behavior. Critically, past-trial features (i.e., pitch, category choice, motor response) keep their respective identities in memory and are only reactivated by the corresponding features in the current trial, giving rise to dissociated feature-specific serial biases. The feature-specific automatic reactivation might constitute a fundamental mechanism for adaptive past-to-present generalizations over multiple features. <<<
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他者 (2023-04-10 11:47):
#paper doi:/10.1371/journal.pone.0000943.Causal Inference in Multisensory Perception,2007,Plos One(发表在Plos One,但是引用高) 神经系统不断地将来自不同感觉方式的不确定信息组合成对感觉刺激原因的综合理解。这些信息可能有相同的来源,也可能来自不同的来源,因此,线索的组合必须根据线索的因果关系。多模式感知整合的方法之一是线索整合概率模型,线索整合概率模型的基础是假定原因是统一的,但是后来的实验发现,当视觉和听觉刺激差异很大时,这种整合就会失效。信息之间的差异称为disparity(分离度)。当两个线索之间的disparity(分离度)增大,那么线索A对于另一个线索B的影响就会减小,反之亦然。disparity(分离度)的存在说明强制融合(无条件假定原因统一)是不成立的,因此还需要对线索之间的因果关系进行推断,需要在模型中增加一个检验交互性的先验(一个联合先验分布),用来分析两个线索同源的可能性高,还是不同源的可能性高。本研究提出了一个因果推断模型,该模型准确地预测了人类受试者在两个听觉-视觉定位任务中对线索的非线性整合。结果表明,人类确实可以有效地推断因果结构以及线索源的位置。推断因果结构的能力不仅限于有意识的、高层次的认知;它也在感知中不断地、毫不费力地进行。
Abstract:
Perceptual events derive their significance to an animal from their meaning about the world, that is from the information they carry about their causes. The brain should thus be able … >>>
Perceptual events derive their significance to an animal from their meaning about the world, that is from the information they carry about their causes. The brain should thus be able to efficiently infer the causes underlying our sensory events. Here we use multisensory cue combination to study causal inference in perception. We formulate an ideal-observer model that infers whether two sensory cues originate from the same location and that also estimates their location(s). This model accurately predicts the nonlinear integration of cues by human subjects in two auditory-visual localization tasks. The results show that indeed humans can efficiently infer the causal structure as well as the location of causes. By combining insights from the study of causal inference with the ideal-observer approach to sensory cue combination, we show that the capacity to infer causal structure is not limited to conscious, high-level cognition; it is also performed continually and effortlessly in perception. <<<
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他者 (2023-03-22 11:38):
#paper doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/psyp.14270 Wrinkles in subsecond time perception are synchronized to the heart 心脏在时间知觉中的作用的证据很少,本研究探究了心脏动力学和亚秒级别时间间隔感知之间的相互作用。被试根据与心脏同步的音调做时间二分法任务,结果显示颞叶对时间间隔感知的延长或缩短与心脏动力学同步。较低的刺激前心理与较长的编码偏差相关。本研究开发了心脏漂移模型(cDDM),为心脏在时间感知觉判断中的作用提供了新的方法论。
Abstract:
The role of the heart in the experience of time has been long theorized but empirical evidence is scarce. Here, we examined the interaction between fine-grained cardiac dynamics and the … >>>
The role of the heart in the experience of time has been long theorized but empirical evidence is scarce. Here, we examined the interaction between fine-grained cardiac dynamics and the momentary experience of subsecond intervals. Participants performed a temporal bisection task for brief tones (80-188 ms) synchronized with the heart. We developed a cardiac Drift-Diffusion Model (cDDM) that embedded contemporaneous heart rate dynamics into the temporal decision model. Results revealed the existence of temporal wrinkles-dilation or contraction of short intervals-in synchrony with cardiac dynamics. A lower prestimulus heart rate was associated with an initial bias in encoding the millisecond-level stimulus duration as longer, consistent with facilitation of sensory intake. Concurrently, a higher prestimulus heart rate aided more consistent and faster temporal judgments through more efficient evidence accumulation. Additionally, a higher speed of poststimulus cardiac deceleration, a bodily marker of attention, was associated with a greater accumulation of sensory temporal evidence in the cDDM. These findings suggest a unique role of cardiac dynamics in the momentary experience of time. Our cDDM framework opens a new methodological avenue for investigating the role of the heart in time perception and perceptual judgment. <<<
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他者 (2023-02-01 00:18):
#paper https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2021.118723. NeuroImage 2018. Structural connectivity-based segmentation of the human entorhinal cortex 在啮齿动物中,将内嗅皮层分割为内侧(MEC)与外侧(LEC)具有明确的定义和特征。然而,在人类中,MEC和LEC的对应确切位置却仍然不确定。之前功能性磁共振成像 (fMRI) 研究已将人类内嗅皮层细分为后内侧 (pmEC) 和前外侧 (alEC)部分,但是成像方式和种子区域(seed)对划分结果的影响仍不明确。本研究使用扩散张量成像(DTI) 和概率纤维束成像,根据与已知选择性投射到的其他大脑区域的差异连接来分割人类内嗅皮层的MEC和LEC。我们将 MEC定义为与前下托和压后皮层(RSC) 的联系更紧密的内嗅皮层,LEC定义为与远端 CA1、近端dCA1pSub)以及外侧眶额叶皮层(OFC) 的联系更紧密的内嗅皮层。尽管我们的DTI分割比之前的 fMRI 研究具有更大的内侧-外侧成分,但我们的结果表明人类 MEC 和 LEC 同系物具有朝向后-前和内侧-外侧轴的边界,支持 pmEC 后内侧 (pmEC) 和前外侧 (alEC)的划分方式。
Abstract:
The medial (MEC) and lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC), widely studied in rodents, are well defined and characterized. In humans, however, the exact locations of their homologues remain uncertain. Previous functional … >>>
The medial (MEC) and lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC), widely studied in rodents, are well defined and characterized. In humans, however, the exact locations of their homologues remain uncertain. Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have subdivided the human EC into posteromedial (pmEC) and anterolateral (alEC) parts, but uncertainty remains about the choice of imaging modality and seed regions, in particular in light of a substantial revision of the classical model of EC connectivity based on novel insights from rodent anatomy. Here, we used structural, not functional imaging, namely diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and probabilistic tractography to segment the human EC based on differential connectivity to other brain regions known to project selectively to MEC or LEC. We defined MEC as more strongly connected with presubiculum and retrosplenial cortex (RSC), and LEC as more strongly connected with distal CA1 and proximal subiculum (dCA1pSub) and lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Although our DTI segmentation had a larger medial-lateral component than in the previous fMRI studies, our results show that the human MEC and LEC homologues have a border oriented both towards the posterior-anterior and medial-lateral axes, supporting the differentiation between pmEC and alEC. <<<
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他者 (2023-01-29 17:31):
#paper https://doi.org/10.1002/hbm.23983 HUMAN BRAIN MAPPING 2018. The retrosplenial cortex: A memory gateway between the cortical default mode network and the medial temporal lobe 默认模式网络 (DMN) 涉及相互作用的皮质区域,包括后扣带皮层 (PCC) 和压后皮质 (RSC),以及皮质下区域,包括内侧颞叶 (MTL)。过去的研究中DMN-MTL的功能连接FC与情景记忆EM表现的关联的静息态研究具有不一致的结果。动物研究表明RSC可以作为促进大脑皮层和皮层下 DMN 之间信息传递的中间层,研究假设RSC对DMN-MTL的功能连接FC与情景记忆EM表现具有中介作用。本研究使用COBRA项目数据集,采集了180名健康老年人(64-68 岁)的EM表现与rfmri,用图论方法对DMN节点进行的进一步分析揭示了RSC 的最高介数中心性,证实了DMN 区域中有很大比例的短路径通过 RSC。
Abstract:
The default mode network (DMN) involves interacting cortical areas, including the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the retrosplenial cortex (RSC), and subcortical areas, including the medial temporal lobe (MTL). The … >>>
The default mode network (DMN) involves interacting cortical areas, including the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the retrosplenial cortex (RSC), and subcortical areas, including the medial temporal lobe (MTL). The degree of functional connectivity (FC) within the DMN, particularly between MTL and medial-parietal subsystems, relates to episodic memory (EM) processes. However, past resting-state studies investigating the link between posterior DMN-MTL FC and EM performance yielded inconsistent results, possibly reflecting heterogeneity in the degree of connectivity between MTL and specific cortical DMN regions. Animal work suggests that RSC has structural connections to both cortical DMN regions and MTL, and may thus serve as an intermediate layer that facilitates information transfer between cortical and subcortical DMNs. We studied 180 healthy old adults (aged 64-68 years), who underwent comprehensive assessment of EM, along with resting-state fMRI. We found greater FC between MTL and RSC than between MTL and the other cortical DMN regions (e.g., PCC), with the only significant association with EM observed for MTL-RSC FC. Mediational analysis showed that MTL-cortical DMN connectivity increased with RSC as a mediator. Further analysis using a graph-theoretical approach on DMN nodes revealed the highest betweenness centrality for RSC, confirming that a high proportion of short paths among DMN regions pass through RSC. Importantly, the degree of RSC mediation was associated with EM performance, suggesting that individuals with greater mediation have an EM advantage. These findings suggest that RSC forms a critical gateway between MTL and cortical DMN to support EM in older adults. <<<
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他者 (2022-12-31 17:34):
#paper doi: doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2202394119,Sleep facilitates spatial memory but not navigation using the Minecraft Memory and Navigation tas,PNAS这篇文章是今年10月刚发表的,基于《我的世界》这个游戏分别研究了睡眠对于导航能力、导航记忆的作用。之前的研究已经证实睡眠可以促进海马相关的记忆,而我们知道海马可以支持空间环境的获取和内部表征,也就是海马可以支持认知地图的形成,认知地图是通过环境探索构建的,是导航的重要表征。那么,推出睡眠可以促进导航相关的记忆就是相当自然的。但是,之前的研究者对于睡眠对导航相关空间记忆的作用的研究结果却不乐观,有一些证实了该推测,而有一些没有。本文研究者认为,睡眠对导航相关空间记忆的作用,要拆成睡眠对空间记忆的作用,以及睡眠对导航能力的作用两部分来看。研究结果支持睡眠促进空间记忆,但不能促进导航能力。
Abstract:
Sleep facilitates hippocampal-dependent memories, supporting the acquisition and maintenance of internal representation of spatial relations within an environment. In humans, however, findings have been mixed regarding sleep's contribution to spatial … >>>
Sleep facilitates hippocampal-dependent memories, supporting the acquisition and maintenance of internal representation of spatial relations within an environment. In humans, however, findings have been mixed regarding sleep's contribution to spatial memory and navigation, which may be due to task designs or outcome measurements. We developed the Minecraft Memory and Navigation (MMN) task for the purpose of disentangling how spatial memory accuracy and navigation change over time, and to study sleep's independent contributions to each. In the MMN task, participants learned the locations of objects through free exploration of an open field computerized environment. At test, they were teleported to random positions around the environment and required to navigate to the remembered location of each object. In study 1, we developed and validated four unique MMN environments with the goal of equating baseline learning and immediate test performance. A total of 86 participants were administered the training phases and immediate test. Participants' baseline performance was equivalent across all four environments, supporting the use of the MMN task. In study 2, 29 participants were trained, tested immediately, and again 12 h later after a period of sleep or wake. We found that the metric accuracy of object locations, i.e., spatial memory, was maintained over a night of sleep, while after wake, metric accuracy declined. In contrast, spatial navigation improved over both sleep and wake delays. Our findings support the role of sleep in retaining the precise spatial relationships within a cognitive map; however, they do not support a specific role of sleep in navigation. <<<
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